Egypt Before Pharaohs

Interestingly, Egyptian High Priest Manetho, who had access to unlimited ancient texts from the Ancient Library of Alexandria, and who wrote for the Pharaoh the history of Ancient Egypt in 30 volumes makes reference to the divine beings that ruled during Pre-Pharaonic Egypt.

If you look at today’s Egyptologists, you will find that they too make use of Manetho’s dating it as a very reliable tool when studying, yet for some reason, the same Egyptologists decided to avoid anything related to Pre-historic dynasties, carefully selecting details and adopting them, while rejecting anything that does not fit into ‘their view’ of history.

Manetho is considered as
the father of Egyptology
by many scholars today

We can trace back the rulers of Egypt in a series of ancient “Royal Lists”.

The Royal List of Abydos for example, located on the wall of the Temple of Sethos I in Abydos offers a chronological order of seventy-six rulers that range from Menes to Sethos I.

In addition the Royal List of Karnak which can be found in Louvre, has sixty-one rulers, from Menes to Tuthmosis III. These two lists offer us into the tradition of Upper Egypt.

The Royal list of Sakkara displays forty-seven kings previous to and including, Ramses II.

In its original state, the papyrus must have been an beautiful exemplar, as the script is an exceptionally fine one.

It contains the names of kings in order, over 300 with the length of each reign in years, months, and days; the definitive edition of the papyrus has not yet been issued, further study is expected to have more results.

The papyrus begins, like Manetho, with the dynasties of gods, followed by mortal kings.

The change of dynasty is noted, and the sum of the reigns is given: also, as in Manetho, several dynasties are added together, e.g. “Sum of the Kings from Menes to [Unas]” at the end of Dynasty V.

The arrangement in the papyrus is very similar to that in the Epitome of Manetho.

Manetho provides us with a number of interesting details about the so-called “divine” rulers of Ancient Egypt and their dynasties which he divides into three different categories:
• the Gods
• the Heroes
• the “Manes”
But many other authors, Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, and Syncellus speak of,
a lineage of Gods who reigned on Earth for a total of 36,600 years.
After this period of rule come the mortal Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.

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Ragnar Larsen