The Time Before The Anunnaki

East Central Israel

“Jericho is believed to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world, with evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BC, providing important information about early human habitation in the Near East.

The first permanent settlement was built near the Ein as-Sultan spring between 8000 and 7000 BC by an unknown people, and consisted of a number of walls, a religious shrine, and a 23-foot (7.0 m) tower with an internal staircase.”

“The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan (or Tell Sultan), a couple of kilometers from the current city.

Arabic tell means “mound” – consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia.

The Neolithic settlements were contemporary with Catalhoyuk and had a similar technology level.”

“The next people who came to Ein es Sultan are called PPNA (The initials stand for Pre-Pottery Neolitiic A).

They made their settlement at the spring around 8,000 BC. As the name indicates, they had no pottery. (Though as a well-preserved site at Catal Huyuk, Turkey shows they had wooden vessels).

But the PPNA culture also raised their own domesticated wheat. (The bones of domesticated sheep and goats and the grains of domesticated wheat can be distinguished from the wild varieties easily.)

The PPNA people built circular dome-shaped one-room huts of curved adobe bricks covered over with plastered mud.

Similar circular huts are still built by peasants in northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey. Sites of the PPNA culture are found all over Israel, Jordan, Syria, and northern Iraq and a similar early agricultural village of what was probably a closely related culture is found at Catal Huyuk in south-central Turkey.

PPNA is the first agricultural society known.

The spread of PPNA probably went along with the spread of a particular language across the Middle East, so PPNA culture was probably spread by one particular people who drove out or absorbed other peoples.”


“Excavations have shown strata of occupancy going back to the Neolithic period (7,000-5,000 BC), but the most outstanding features of the site were constructed during the early, middle and late Bronze Ages (5,000-2,000 BC).

Inscriptions found within the excavation go back as far as the Neolithic period, and a sophisticated pictograph form of writing was developed as early as 2000-1800 BC.

The “Metsamor Inscriptions” have a likeness to later scripts.


The excavation has uncovered a large metal industry, including a foundry with 2 kinds of blast furnaces (brick and in-ground).

Metal processing at Metsamor was among the most sophisticated of its kind at that time: the foundry extracted and processed high-grade gold, copper, several types of bronze, manganese, zinc, strychnine, mercury and iron.”

Eastern Anatolia

“The Çayönü settlement which is not far from the city of Diyarbakir has been unearthed by the expedition teams under the leadership of Cambel, Braidwood, Mehmet Ozdogan, Wulf Schirmen and it is dated back to 7250-6750 BC.

In the middle of the settlement is a center and around it are monumental, rectangular structures and houses. The foundation of the structures is stone and above is sun-dried brick. The inhabitants of Çayönü are the first farmers of Anatolia. They raised sheep and goat, and domesticated dog.

The woman figurines among the finds discovered are the earliest traces of the Mother Goddess cult.”

If you try to find this site using Google Maps or Google Earth you will not be directed to the correct location. In fact both of those locations have differing references as to where Çayönü is located which is too far north for both.

The below bottom map is correct and the actual dig is at the top which has a small stream flowing through it and not at the center which is Sesverenpınar.

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Ragnar Larsen